Sometimes even very expensive and well build equipment breaks. This recently happened to researcher Biljana Mojsoska, a chemist at Roskilde University. She was working with nano sheets, an anti-bacterial coating for medical surfaces, as her machine stopped working. The fact that such equipment can be so expensive to replace or repair triggered Jakub Klust and Bo Thorning at Fablab RUC. Could they build a machine with the same functionalities, using the equipment available at FabLab RUC? Would it be possible to build a much cheaper and easier to fix version of Biljana Mojsoska machine?
I have designed a thermocouple meter for use for obtaining temperature readings from thermocouples. Its used together with the thermal chamber described elsewhere on this site. The design is done primarily as a programmable instrument, but it has a OLED display, so it can show the current temperature. The programming uses SCPI, the same type of programming strings that most newer (1990 forward) instruments use.
App note from KEMET on their new suggested testing for Tantalum polymer capacitors. Link here
Tantalum polymer capacitors are expanding their market share in the commercial world because they offer superior electrical performance (primarily much lower ESR), have outstanding reliability, and display a more benign failure response than the incumbent MnO2-cathode tantalum capacitor technology. It is natural that engineers want to use this new technology in high-reliability applications. However, a key reliability assessment tool for MnO2-cathode tantalum capacitors – Weibull grading per MIL-PRF55365 – is often ineffective when applied to tantalum polymer capacitors. Because this well-established tool often proves ineffective, a new reliability assessment strategy is needed and has now been developed by KEMET. The basic principles behind the Weibull grading technique are reviewed, as are the reasons why it is often ineffective when applied to tantalum polymer capacitors. Then a new reliability assessment strategy for tantalum polymer capacitors is described. Special emphasis is placed on differences in the typical time-to-failure responses of tantalum polymer capacitors versus MnO2-cathode tantalum capacitors during this discussion. Finally, an example is given of successful use of this new reliability assessment strategy in a real-world high-reliability application.
This application note introduces polymer electrolytic technology, the electric performance of these parts, advantages relative to other capacitors, and how the commercial-grade product was improved to pass the stringent AEC-Q200 guidelines.
Tantalum polymer capacitors are popular in many decoupling applications including high performance DC to DC converters. This created a perfect fit for polymer capacitors in telecom and industrial high performance applications. Now the automotive segment is showing an increased demand for these type of capacitors for use in infotainment and advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). Most automotive applications require passive components to be qualified to the Automotive Electronics Council’s AEC-Q200 Stress Test Qualification for Passive Components. KEMET Electronics has addressed this need by developing new processes and materials to offer the market’s first polymer electrolytic capacitors qualified to AEC-Q200.
Since a couple of months I have fascination for vintage computers like Commodore or Nintendo. I’m in the process restoring and pimping a Commodore SX64 and realized I did’t have a printer for it. After all it is an executive machine and how do I otherwise print my quotations and invoices? The solution was in a thermal printer I had lying around for years without a real purpose.
Various configuration of linear regulator for parallel operation discussed in this technical article from Analog Devices. Link here
Linear regulators provide a simple, low noise solution for dc-dc regulation. However, at higher VIN-VOUT differentials the low efficiency and high power dissipation of linear regulators limits the amount of output current that can realistically be delivered. Connecting multiple linear regulators in parallel spreads the load (and the heat) over several ICs, increasing the useful range of output currents a solution can deliver. However, connecting linear regulators in parallel is not always straightforward.
Adding robustness by digital isolation and compensating for propagation delays to CAN network presented in this technical article from Analog Devices. Link here (PDF)
Controller area network (CAN), standardized under ISO 11898, is widely used in industrial and automotive applications. CAN protocols such as DeviceNet or CANOpen rely on the built-in error checking and differential signaling. Galvanic isolation can further enhance robustness, offering immunity to high voltage transients at a cost of added propagation delay. The optimal configuration of CAN nodes can allow the maximum data rate and distance even when isolation is present.
App note from ROHM Semiconductors about different type of bypass capacitors impedance and some tip when replacing them. Link here (PDF)
There are various types of capacitors. If you select parts only based on their capacitance values, the requirements for bypass capacitors may not be satisfied, leading to malfunction of devices or nonconformity to standards. This application note focuses on the impedance characteristics of capacitors, and explains cautions for selecting bypass capacitors.
App note from ROHM Semiconductors about linear regulator dropout voltage. Link here (PDF)
The dropout voltage is the difference between the input and output voltages that is necessary for the stabilizing operation of a linear regulator. When the input voltage approaches the output voltage, stabilizing operation cannot be maintained and the output starts dropping in proportion to the input. The voltage at which this situation starts, i.e., the difference between the input and output voltages that is necessary for the stabilizing operation, is referred to as the dropout voltage.
For my Convergent restoration, I decided to build an RASCSI to replace some failing SCSI hard drives. The RASCSI is a SCSI emulator built using a raspberry pi. Problem with these types of emulators is that if you carelessly power off the host computer (which was a perfectly acceptable thing to do back in the 80s), you end up also unsafely shutting down the pi — which can cause corruption of the SD-Card, loss of in-memory data, etc. Back when I built David Gesswein’s MFM Emulator, he included a supercapacitor UPS that provided power just long enough to safely shut down a beaglebone. I figured the same thing would work for a raspberry pi.
The FPGA was invented by Ross Freeman1 who co-founded Xilinx2 in 1984 and introduced the first FPGA, the XC2064. 3 This FPGA is much simpler than modern FPGAs—it contains just 64 logic blocks, compared to thousands or millions in modern FPGAs—but it led to the current multi-billion-dollar FPGA industry. Because of its importance, the XC2064 is in the Chip Hall of Fame. I reverse-engineered Xilinx’s XC2064, and in this blog post I explain its internal circuitry (above) and how a “bitstream” programs it.
Analog Devices’ RS-485 robustness demonstration by direct application of HV transient to the communication line. Link here
Industrial and instrumentation applications (I&I) require transmission of data between multiple systems, often over very long distances. The RS-485 bus standard is one of the most widely used physical layer bus designs in I&I applications. Applications for RS-485 include process control networks, industrial automation, remote terminals, and building automation such as heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC), security systems, motor control, and motion control.
In these real systems, lightning strikes, power source fluctuations, inductive switching, and electrostatic discharge can cause damage to communications ports by generating large transient voltages. Designers must ensure that equipment does not just work in ideal conditions but also works in the ‘real world.’
App note from Analog Devices on improving robustness of an amplifier by determining and mitigating internal ESD diode clamp electrical overestress. Link here
When external overvoltage conditions are applied to an amplifier, ESD diodes are the last line of defense between your amplifier and electrical over stress. With proper understanding of how an ESD cell is implemented in a device, a designer can greatly extend the survival range of an amplifier with the appropriate circuit design. This article aims to introduce readers to the various types of ESD implementations, discuss the characteristics of each implementation, and provide guidance on how to utilize these cells to improve the robustness of a design.
App note from ROHM Semiconductors about the cautions when measuring temperature from PN Junctions. Link here (PDF)
The forward voltage of a pn junction can be measured to estimate the junction temperature of a semiconductor device. However, correct results may not be obtained if the measurement is performed incorrectly.
See the simple composition of a digital transistor, app note from ROHM Semiconductors. Link here
A digital transistor is a bipolar transistor that integrates resistors. Bipolar operation tends to become unstable if the input (Base) is connected directly to the output terminal of an IC for voltage control. Inserting a resistor at the Base stabilizes operation.
I’ve written a few software UARTs for AVR MCUs. All of them have bit-banged the output, using cycle-counted assembler busy loops to time the output of each bit. The code requires interrupts to be disabled to ensure accurate timing between bits. This makes it impossible to receive data at the same time as it is being transmitted, and therefore the bit-banged implementations have been half-duplex. By using the waveform generator of the timer/counter in many AVR MCUs, I’ve found a way to implement a full-duplex UART, which can simultaneously send and receive at up to 115kbps when the MCU is clocked at 8Mhz.
tuenhidiy shared detailed instructions of how to easily build your own low-cost Arduino mini CNC plotter from old DVD/CD player, project instructables here.
I have become too concerned with complicated details or new things, and now I should concentrate on basic, simple and important ideas. Getting back to basics, to start learning CNC, today I’d like to share how to easily build your own low-cost Arduino Mini CNC Plotter. With my version, I used the spring part of stapler as a main component for pen lift. During the process of doing this, I have referenced from many sources, studied & tried to clarify some point hard to grasp.
A Bench Power Supply is an essential component for any serious electronics experimenter. But a good supply with multiple output voltages and a high current capability can set you back some serious cash. In this article we’ll look at an alternative – using an old computer ATX power supply as a high-performance workbench power supply. It’s a simple project that can give you a highly capable piece of equipment for next to nothing
App note from ON Semiconductors on the do’s and don’ts when using zero-drift precision op amps. Link here (PDF)
Zero−drift precision op amps are specialized op amps designed for applications that require high output accuracy due to small differential voltages. Not only do they feature low input offset voltage, but they also have high CMRR, high PSRR, high open loop gain, and low drift over temperature and time. These features make them ideal for applications such as low−side current sensing and sensor interface, particularly with very small differential signals.
Precision op amps are able to achieve “zero−drift” offset voltage, maintaining low input offset voltage over temperature variation and time, through a number of techniques. One of the ways that an amplifier can achieve this is by using a design technique that periodically measures the input offset voltage and corrects the offset at the output. This type of architecture is referred to as chopper−stabilized. Like all engineering solutions, zero−drift op amps also have their limitations. One of the less obvious is a result of the fact that the internal circuit of the chopper−stabilized amplifier contains a clocked system.
App note from NXP demonstrating capacitive pin channels expansion on LPC804 MCU with SWM (switch matrix) and scan sequences. Link here (PDF)
The CapTouch module on LPC804 supports only 5 channels by hardware. Normally, the device with up to 5 channels can fulfill some simple use cases. But if more channels are required by the original CapTouch module, the LPC804 might not support the usage. Even by the LPC845, the CapTouch module support up to 9 channels. However, the SWM module on LPC804 can remap the CapTouch function to almost all the GPIO pins, while the CapTouch feature was the fixed function for pins on LPC845. With suitable software and the settings to CapTouch, the LPC804 use the different pins at different time slice, then it can support more channels than the hardware limited count by software. For example, 12 channels of normal dialing keyboard, or more.