Dejan Nedelkovski over at HowToMechatronics shared detailed tutorial on how servo motors work and how to control servos using Arduino and PCA9685 PWM driver:
There are many types of servo motors and their main feature is the ability to precisely control the position of their shaft. A servo motor is a closed-loop system that uses position feedback to control its motion and final position.
In industrial type servo motors the position feedback sensor is usually a high precision encoder, while in the smaller RC or hobby servos the position sensor is usually a simple potentiometer. The actual position captured by these devices is fed back to the error detector where it is compared to the target position. Then according to the error the controller corrects the actual position of the motor to match with the target position.
In this tutorial we will take a detailed look at the hobby servo motors. We will explain how these servos work and how to control them using Arduino.
More details at HowToMechatronics.
Check out the video after the break.