I plan to build a home-made 3D printer controlled by my Raspberry Pi, which, unfortunately, does not have any analog data acquisition pin. Therefore I decide to build a stand-alone temperature control system.
The idea is very simple. I use a power resistor as the heater and a thermistor as the temperature sensor. The system contains an LM324 quad op-amps chip. One op-amp is used as a comparator to compare the thermistor resistance with a nominal resistance and output LOW or HIGH as the comparison result. The other three op-amps inside the LM324 are used to perform some linear transformation and output a voltage that is proportional to the thermistor temperature. This voltage is applied to a 0-30V voltmeter so one can read the temperature. A N-Channel MOSFET transistor is used to control on/off of the heater.