App note: Implement capacitive sensing on a PIC10F microcontroller
Here’s an app note from Microchip describing how to implement capacitive sensing using two pins on the tiny PIC10F microcontroller.
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Capacitive sensing is implemented by turning the comparator into a relaxation oscillator. The output of the comparator is used to charge and discharge the sensing capacitor, that is formed by a pad on the circuit board. The charge rate is determined by the RC time constant, created by an external resistor and the capacitance of the pad.